Anja developed this theme during her master in Social Psychology where she did her first survey in 1987 on stereotypes between ethnic groups and stigmatisation of ethnic groups. A survey with 300 respondents was arranged, to study (in) consistency between inter-ethnic friendship and stereotypes. The relationship turned out not straight forward and complicated.  Seeing the danger of such unfounded views about migrant groups, this remained interested in the subject. Anja wrote about Stigma in the case of Moroccan associations, and stigma towards Muslims during the EURISLAM project. At that point in time, Islamophobia had become an obvious phenomenon.



  • Kassaye, A., & A. van Heelsum (2020) ‘Muslim Organisations’ Response to Stigmatisation in the Media: Protest, Adaption or Decoupling’, Journal of Muslims in Europe, 9(1), 96-118, DOI: 10.1163/22117954-BJA10001.
  • Kassaye, A., I. Ashur & A. van Heelsum (2016) ‘The relationship between media discourses and experiences of belonging: Dutch Somali perspectives’. Ethnicities 16 (5). DOI: 10.1177/1468796816653627.
  • Heelsum, A. van (2014) ‘Moroccan associations in the Netherlands: how organisation leaders deal with the stigmatisation of the Moroccan community’, in: I. Handzlik & L. Sorokowski (eds.) Found in Multiculturalism. Acceptance or Challenge? Bern/New York: Peter Lang Publishers, p.91-106.
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  • Koomen, M., J. Tillie, A. van Heelsum & S. van Stiphout (2013) ‘Discursive framing and the reproduction of integration in the public sphere: a comparative analysis of France, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Germany’, Ethnicities, 13 (2), 191-208, DOI: 10.1177/1468796812470898.
  • Heelsum, A. van (2003) Reacties van zelforganisaties op stigmatisering, In: S. Harchaoui & C. Huinder (eds), Stigma: Marokkaan! Over het afstoten en uitsluiten van een ingebeelde bevolkingsgroep, Utrecht: Forum.
  • Heelsum, A. van & I. Alkema (1987) Vooroordeel en Vriendschap. MA thesis Sociale Psychologie, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.